Logo Writer Unit

Bruce Cattanach The Lakeview School

Denville NJ 07834-3419

Objective: Provide a creative programing language for students. Allow students the
freedom to use this language to create and build understanding of how computers operate
and how to use them.

Procedure: Create excitement among the students for each lesson. Give the students
enough new information to stimulate new pages but do not overload with lots of
commands. Use a constructionist approach to student work.

Evaluation: Evaluation will center around students mastery of the basic commands. At the
conclusion of instruction the students are given a set screen or project to create. Great
incentive is provided for students to master the lesson objective. Only after the objective
has been reached will the student be allowed to work on an independent project.
Challenges are offered for able students before they proceed on independent work.

Lesson 1: Introduction. Use projection of screen. Show how turtle moves. Introduce FD,
BK, RT, LT. Explain angles, degrees and why angles over 360 degrees are pointless.

Project: Students to draw one rectangle and one square.

Challenge: Draw a triangle and pentagram.

After completion of assignment students are free to pursue and experiment with

Lesson 2: Introduce color commands and pen commands. Show students where help
screen is and the colors that are available. Show how Pen Up [PU], Pen Down [PD], and
Pen Erase [PE] work on overhead. Show how to access the help screen using apple keys.
Explain Set Color [SETC], Set Background [SETBG], Clear Graphics [CG].

Project: Change background color, turtle color, draw two squares that are not connected.
Draw a dotted line.

Challenge: Draw a dotted line with different colors. Draw a square inside a square each
using a different color. Ask class about the color black. How is it created? Upon mastery
of concepts students are free to experiment.

Lesson3: Introduce REPEAT. Show on overhead how to create square: REPEAT 4 [FD
45 RT 90]. Show on overhead that REPEAT 100 [FD 45 RT 90] does exactly the same
as the first repeat. (ie A waste of the Turtles time!) Do a short lesson on the chalk board
explaining angles: 360 degrees to circle, 90 degrees to right angle. Indicate that angles (RT
and LT over 360 are a waste of the turtles time!)

Project: Create a square inside a square with no connecting lines using repeat function.

Challenge: Create multiple squares inside squares, each of a different color and each
without connecting lines, using REPEAT.

NOTE: These lessons can be broken up for class periods of exploration at any time.
Every effort should be make to have students be comfortable and master the new
commands. Additional challenges can be offered for students able to grasp initial concepts
while other students work on standard project.

Lesson 4: Introduce Name Page, and Save Page. Explain how work on the page can be
saved but only if the page is named. Show using screen how to save a page and then how
to change the page name. .

Project: Students create one page named LW their name. Then change page name to LW
their name in caps. Then change page name again to LW their name in lower case.
Students use initials to create page name to save work on. Class then creates own work
using commands and saves.

Challenge: Is there a maximum length for a page name?

Lesson 5: Introduce LOGO Writer word processing. Commands- Cursor to top of page,
Cursor to bottom of page. Clear Text [CT]. Use overhead to show class that the cursor
will change position using Apple U and Apple D to graphic screen or command center.
Show how pages can be named and titled on the graphics page.

Project: Students use named page from table of contents to CG and then create a design
on the page. The students will then title the page and put their names on it. The class will
then save, bring up screen again and view other students work. Emphasis is on original
work using REPEAT and other commands using various colors and designs. Emphasis
will be placed on avoidance of large repeats with no turns which color the entire screen.

Students to finish project on named page, title page and students names must be on
screen. Students must save for next lesson.

Challenge: Students will name additional page and experiment further.

Lesson 6: Printing the graphic page. Student's use printer.setup to change to color printer
setting for Image Writer. When students work is ready then print using PRINTSCREEN.

Project: Complete a graphic project. Title the picture and put students names on page.

Print out final copy. Compare different graphic works to see which print out best. Discuss
why certain pages look better.

Challenge: Write a short description or story and illustrate, then print.

Lesson 7: Introduction of Shapes and STAMP. Use the projector screen. Show Shapes
page from table of contents. Have students memorize three shapes by number. Introduce
SETSH, Explain that shapes do not show direction the way that the turtle does.

Project: Students to stamp 3 shapes on page two times each.

Challenge: Stamp using different colors for each shape. Additional challenge: Make a road
with trees, houses and cars.

Lesson 8: Introduce: FILL. Show similarity to paint can in painting programs. Indicate
that the fill command can ONLY be used after a PU and PD command sequence. Use
overhead projector to show how fill can be used.

Project: Create 3 designs and fill in each with a different color.

Challenge: Make a flag of your own design.

Lesson 9: Introduce SHADE. Show similarity of FILL and SHADE as far as preliminary
steps. Show how shape and color are critical to effect. Demonstrate on overhead method
and effect of SHADE on entire screen, and within closed shape.

Project: Students to divide screen into four sections. Then SHADE using different shapes
and colors.

Challenge: Create various shapes and fill with different colored shapes.

Lesson 10: Creating a Shape. Class shown how to use Apple F command from SHAPES
page to create own shape. Students work on creation of shape.

Project: Students to create a picture of their own choosing using commands: STAMP,
FILL, SHADE. Note: Since a majority of class time will be spent on making the shape
students will have assignment to bring in idea for picture they will create during next class.

Challenge: Students take graph paper and work up a shape design in advance of next

Lesson 11: Combining Skills. Class to create a picture on their own choosing using
commands learned so far. When picture is completed students will access printer and
print out design.

Project: Create and print a computer generated picture.

Challenge: Add shapes of own design to make picture more effective.

Lesson 12: Students to experiment and construct a screen design using any commands
known. Students may create SHAPES, use REPEAT and work with all tools to create a

Project: Create a screen using any commands known.

Challenge: Have student use every command available.

Lesson 13: Review of previous 4th grade work. NP, CG, CT, SETC, SETBG, LT, RT,
will all be reviewed.

Project: Use all commands in the creation of a page. Print page.

Challenge: Create triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon on page and fill with different
colors, then print.

Lesson 14: Introduce the "FLIP SIDE". Show how through using TO **** and END the
students can tell the computer to do multiple commands. Use CG at beginning of all FLIP
SIDE programs. Explain that all programs must use END and end of program.

Project: Write a program "box" which will make a square on the graphics page. Write
another program "box2" which will make one box inside of another. Write names on page
and print. (use non color printer to speed up process). These printed exercises will form
the basis of a bulletin board showing student work.

Challenge: Make the program "box2" have different colors inside each of the boxes.

Lesson 15: The Geometry of shapes. Ask students for possible solutions to programs to
write shapes as pentagon, triangle, decagon. Write student solutions on chalk board
(correct or incorrect). Ask about possible solutions to circle. Introduce HT, Hide Turtle to
have cursor draw without turtle shape attached.

Project: Students to create programs to draw shapes on screen. Each program name
should describe the shape drawn. Printscreen.

Challenge: Draw a circle inside a square. Make it touch the four sides of the square.
Printscreen after writing names on graphic screen.

Lesson 16: Creating a Super-Procedure from Sub-Procedures. Show on overhead a
sample program which uses a number of procedures and links them together in a
super-procedure. Explain why smaller procedures are valuable, to be repeated at various
times in the program and easier to debug that large procedures. Explain format of writing
FLIP SIDE procedures: Extensive use of return key, make program easy to follow. Show
and explain how "comments" may be used in programs. All programs are now required to
have a comment at the beginning: name, date, short description.

Project: Write a program which will link some earlier PROCEDURES used on the flip
side. Run Super-Procedure to see if all procedures are begin run. Debug if necessary.
Challenge: Modify Super-Procedure so that all shapes in Sub-Procedures are in different
areas of the screen and do not overlap.

Lesson 17: Introducing commands: Set Heading [SETH], Show Heading [SHOW
HEADING]. Explain compass headings vs. LT and RT headings. Explain RELATIVE
headings and ABSOLUTE headings. Using overhead show SETH commands. Absolute
heading can also be described by Compass Rose headings N, S, E, W, and so on.
Handout heading direction so students can make decisions on Turtle direction. Explain
SHOW HEADING, which details the turtles position at any time.

Project: Have students make a compass rose on their graphics screen. Use SETH

Challenge: Students use Apple U and Apple D to type numbers on screen for compass
rose angles. Printscreen.

Lesson 18: Introducing commands: Go Home [HOME], Set Position [SETPOS], Show
Position [SHOW POS]. Handout showing the grid of the graphics screen with
coordinates. Explain this is the same as positive and negative graph paper in geometry.
Explain that SETPOS works as though the pen is down. PU is required to move turtle
without making a line.

Project: Using turtle move, change the turtle location 4 times and find locations using
SHOW POS. Stamp a shape in a non home position, find and record the position. Go
home and then place the turtle in that location using SETPOS. Draw a square using
SETPOS positions.

Challenge: Find the size of the graphics screen. How many turtle steps from top to
bottom? How many steps from side to side?

Additional Challenge: Draw a spiral design using SETPOS that will go from the center to
the outside of the screen. Put names on page and PRINTSCREEN.

Lesson 19: Using more than one Turtle. Commands introduced: tell all [TELL ALL], tell
turtle #1 [TELL 1], [TELL 2], [TELL 3], [TELL 0]. Use overhead. Explain that there
are 4 turtles on the screen. Only turtle 0 has been used up to now. All turtles can be
controlled but must be instructed on exactly what to do. The turtles all have a home but it
is not the SETPOS [0 0] that turtle 0 has. Exercise: Find the coordinates for all turtles.

Project: Set each turtle to a different color. Write a distinct and different procedure for
each turtle. Label each procedure: turtle0, turtle1, turtle2, turtle3. Create super-procedure
runturtle which includes the 4 turtle procedures. Run "runturtle". Note: Every turtle must
be told everything!

Challenge: Make the Olympic rings using SETPOS, SETC, REPEAT. Hint: One turtle
will have to make 2 rings!

Lesson 20: Integrate usage of SETPOS and TELL turtle. Using procedures, students are
to create a unique graphic presentation using 4 turtles. Each turtle will have a different
design to draw. The second procedure will use the command TELL ALL. The two
procedures will be linked by a Super-Procedure.

Project: Create a unique graphic design using the above parameters.

Challenge: Expand the idea having each turtle take on a different shape, then use stamp
and shade. Perhaps divide the screen first and then have the turtles take an area.

Lesson 21: Introduce TONE command. Demonstrate how TONE works and how to use
the TONE command. Handout on notes and frequency numbers. Work through with
class the length of notes for half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth. Indicate wait used as a rest.

Project: Students to experiment with TONE.

Challenge: Students to find sheet music and transpose music to LOGO program as
homework assignment. After transposed work is written down, type into program.

Lesson 22: Integrate knowledge acquired. Students to create original programmed work
using commands known.

Project: Develop a program less than 30 seconds using programming knowledge.

Challenge: Integrate TONE into a graphic program so it appears that both are running

Lesson 23: Continue with integration project. Students to use PR [ ] on the flip side to
create a title page for use with the original work. Emphasis placed on original non
repeating/non tracing work with TONE integrated into the program.

Project: Finalize final work with timing of work with stopwatch. Clean up programs if
necessary for readability. Label all procedures and super-procedure. Class to printout
programs on hard copy.

Challenge: Add a exit screen to program, thanking viewer or listing credits.

Lesson 24: Students to view programs on overhead projector. Class will study FLIP
SIDE and hard copy programs to understand the methods used to generate the programs
on the graphic screen.

Project: Appreciate the originality of others programming skills. Understand differing
methods and styles of programming. Note clarity of programming style.

Challenge: Make the intro screen and exit screen scroll up the page.

For additional information on LOGOWriter
your may write the author at: bcattanach@att.net